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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Berakoth
This does not mean that the name Jacob shall be obliterated, but that Israel shall be the principal name and Jacob a secondary one. And so it says: Remember ye not the former things, neither consider the things of old.1 'Remember ye not the former things': this refers to the subjections to the other nations; 'Neither consider the things of old': this refers to the exodus from Egypt.
Behold I shall do a new thing; now shall it spring forth.2 R. Joseph learnt: This refers to the war of Gog and Magog. A parable: To what is this like? To a man who was travelling on the road when he encountered a wolf and escaped from it, and he went along relating the affair of the wolf. He then encountered a lion and escaped from it, and went along relating the affair of the lion. He then encountered a snake and escaped from it, whereupon he forgot the two previous incidents and went along relating the affair of the snake. So with Israel: the later troubles make them forget the earlier ones.
Abram the same is Abraham.3 At first he became a father to Aram [Ab-Aram] only, but in the end he became a father to the whole world.4 [Similarly] Sarai is the same as Sarah. At first she became a princess to her own people, but later she became a princess to all the world.5 Bar Kappara taught: Whoever calls Abraham Abram transgresses a positive precept, since it says, Thy name shall be Abraham.6 R. Eliezer says: He transgresses a negative command,7 since it says, Neither shall thy name any more be called Abram.8 But if that is so, then the same should apply to one who calls Sarah Sarai? — In her case the Holy One, blessed be He, said to Abraham, As for Sarai thy wife, thou shalt not call her Sarai, but Sarah shall her name be.9 But if that is so, the same should apply to one who calls Jacob Jacob? — There is a difference in his case, because Scripture restored it [the name Jacob] to him, as it is written: And God spoke unto Israel in the visions of the night, and said, Jacob, Jacob.10 R. Jose b. Abin (or, as some say, R. Jose b. Zebida) cited in objection the following: Thou art the Lord, the God who didst choose Abram!11 — The answer was given: There the prophet12 is recounting the noble deeds of the All Merciful [and relates] that that was the case originally.
MISHNAH. IF ONE WAS READING IN THE TORAH [THE SECTION OF THE SHEMA'] WHEN THE TIME FOR ITS RECITAL ARRIVED, IF HE HAD THE INTENTION13 HE HAS PERFORMED HIS OBLIGATION. IN THE BREAKS14 ONE MAY GIVE GREETING OUT OF RESPECT15 AND RETURN GREETING; IN THE MIDDLE [OF A SECTION] ONE MAY GIVE GREETING OUT OF FEAR16 AND RETURN IT. SO R. MEIR. RABBI JUDAH SAYS: IN THE MIDDLE ONE MAY GIVE GREETING OUT OF FEAR AND RETURN IT OUT OF RESPECT, IN THE BREAKS ONE MAY GIVE GREETING OUT OF RESPECT AND RETURN GREETING TO ANYONE. THE BREAKS ARE AS FOLLOWS: BETWEEN THE FIRST BLESSING AND THE SECOND,17 BETWEEN THE SECOND AND 'HEAR', BETWEEN 'HEAR' AND 'AND IT SHALL COME TO PASS', BETWEEN AND IT SHALL COME TO PASS' AND 'AND THE LORD SAID AND BETWEEN AND THE LORD SAID' AND 'TRUE AND FIRM'.18 RABBI JUDAH SAYS: BETWEEN 'AND THE LORD SAID' AND 'TRUE AND FIRM' ONE SHOULD NOT INTERRUPT.
R. JOSHUA B. KORHAH SAID: WHY WAS THE SECTION OF 'HEAR' PLACED BEFORE THAT OF 'AND IT SHALL COME TO PASS'? SO THAT ONE SHOULD FIRST ACCEPT UPON HIMSELF THE YOKE OF THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN19 AND THEN TAKE UPON HIMSELF THE YOKE OF THE COMMANDMENTS.20 WHY DOES THE SECTION OF 'AND IT SHALL COME TO PASS' COME BEFORE THAT OF 'AND THE LORD SAID'? BECAUSE [THE SECTION] 'AND IT SHALL COME TO PASS' IS APPLICABLE BOTH TO THE DAY AND TO THE NIGHT,21 WHEREAS [THE SECTION] 'AND THE LORD SAID' IS APPLICABLE ONLY TO THE DAY.22
GEMARA. This23 proves that precepts must be performed with intent.24 [No, perhaps] what IF HE HAD THE INTENTION means is, if it was his intention to read the Scripture? 'To read'? But surely he is reading! — [The Mishnah may refer] to one who is reading [a scroll] in order to revise it.25
Our Rabbis taught: The Shema' must be recited as it is written.26 So Rabbi. The Sages, however, say that it may be recited in any language. What is Rabbi's reason? — Scripture says: and they shall be,27 implying, as they are they shall remain.28 What is the reason of the Rabbis? — Scripture says 'hear',29 implying, in any language that you understand.30 Rabbi also must see that 'hear' is written? — He requires it [for the lesson]: Make your ear hear what your mouth utters.21 The Rabbis, however, concur with the authority who says that even if he did not say it audibly he has performed his obligation. The Rabbis too must see that 'and they shall be' is written? — They require this to teach that he must not say the words out of order. Whence does Rabbi derive the rule that he must not say the words out of order? — He derives it from the fact that the [text says] 'ha-debarim' [the words] when it might have said simply debarim [words]. And the Rabbis? — They derive no lesson from the substitution of ha-debarim for debarim.
May we assume that Rabbi was of opinion that the whole Torah is allowed to be read in any language, since if you assume that it is allowed to be read only in the holy tongue, why the 'and they shall be' written by the All-Merciful? — This was necessary, because 'hear' is written.32 May we assume that the Rabbis were of opinion that the whole Torah is allowed to be read only in the holy tongue. since if you assume that it is allowed to be read only in any language. why the 'hear' written by the All-Merciful? — It is necessary because 'and they shall be' is written.33
Our Rabbis taught: 'And they shall be'.34 This teaches that they must not be read backwards. 'These words upon thy heart'.34 Am I to say that the whole [first] section requires kawanah?35 Therefore the text says 'these': up to this point kawanah is necessary, from this point kawanah is not necessary. So R. Eliezer. Said R. Akiba to him: Behold it says.
Which I command thee this day upon thy heart. From this you learn that the whole section requires to be said with kawanah. Rabbah b. Hanah said in the name of R. Johanan: The halachah is as laid down by R. Akiba. Some refer this statement1 to the following. as it has been taught: One who reads the Shema' must pay proper attention2 to what he says. R. Aha said in the name of R. Judah: If he has paid proper attention to the first section, he need not do so for the rest. Rabba b. Bar Hanah said in the name of R. Johanan: The halachah is as stated by R. Aha in the name of R. Judah.
Another [Baraitha] taught: 'And they shall be': this teaches that they must not be said backwards. 'upon thy heart': R. Zutra says: Up to this point extends the command of kawanah,3 from this point only the command of reciting applies. R. Josiah says: Up to this point extends the command of reciting; from this point the command of kawanah applies. Why this difference in the application from this point of the command of reciting? [presumably] because it is written 'to speak of them';4 here too [in the first] also it is written, 'and thou shalt speak of them'!5 What he means is this: Up to this point applies the command both of kawanah and reciting; from this point onwards applies the command of reciting [even] without kawanah.6 And why this difference in the application up to the point of the command both of reciting and kawanah? [presumably] because it is written, upon thy heart and thou shalt speak of them?7 [In the second section] there too it is written, 'upon thy hearts to speak of them.8 That text was required for the lesson enunciated by R. Isaac, who said: 'Ye shall put these my words [upon your hearts]';8 it is requisite that the placing [of the tefillin] should be opposite the heart.
The Master stated [above]: 'R. Josiah said: Up to this point extends the command of reciting; from this point onwards the command of kawanah applies'. Why this difference in the application from this point onward of the command of kawanah? [Presumably] because it is written, 'upon your heart'? There too [in the first section] also it is written upon thy heart? — What he meant is this: Up to this point applies the command of reciting and kawanah, from this point onwards applies that of kawanah [even] without reciting.9 Why this difference in the application up to this point of the command of reciting and kawanah? [Presumably] because it is written, 'upon thy heart and thou shalt speak of them?' There too [in the second section] also it is written, 'upon your heart to speak. of them'! These words have reference to words of Torah, and what the All-Merciful meant is this: Teach your children Torah, so that they may be fluent in them.
It has been taught: Symmachus says: Whoever prolongs the word ehad [one]. has his days and years prolonged. R. Aha b. Jacob said: [He must dwell] on the daleth.12 R. Ashi said: Provided he does not slur over the heth.13 R. Jeremiah was once sitting before R. Hiyya b. Abba, and the latter saw that he was prolonging [the word ehad] very much. He said to him: Once you have declared Him king14 over [all that is] above and below and over the four quarters of the 'heaven, no more is required.
R. Nathan b. Mar 'Ukba said in the name of Rab Judah: 'upon thy heart' must be said standing. [Only] 'Upon thy heart'? How can you assume this? Rather say: Up to 'upon thy heart' must be said standing; from there onwards not [necessarily]. R. Johanan, however, said: The whole [first] section must be said standing. And R. Johanan in this is consistent; for Rabbah b. Bar Hanah said in the name of R. Johanan: The halachah is as stated by R. Aha in the name of R. Judah.15
Our Rabbis taught: 'Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one': this was R. Judah the Prince's recital of the Shema'.16 Rab said once to R. Hiyya: I do not see Rabbi accept upon himself the yoke of the kingdom of heaven.17 He replied to him: Son of Princes!18 In the moment when he passes his hand over his eyes, he accepts upon himself the yoke of the kingdom of heaven. Does he finish it afterwards or does he not finish it afterwards?19 Bar Kappara said: He does not finish it afterwards; R. Simeon son of Rabbi said, He does finish it afterwards. Said Bar Kappara to R. Simeon the son of Rabbi: On my view that he does not finish it afterwards, there is a good reason why Rabbi always is anxious to take a lesson in which there is mention of the exodus from Egypt.20 But on your view that he does finish it afterwards, why is he anxious to take such a lesson? — So as to mention the going forth from Egypt at the proper time.21
R. Ela the son of R. Samuel b. Martha said in the name of Rab: If one said 'Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one', and was then overpowered by sleep, he has performed his obligation. R. Nahman said to his slave Daru: For the first verse prod me,22 but do not prod me for any more. R. Joseph said to R. Joseph the son of Rabbah: How did your father use to do? He replied: For the first verse he used to take pains [to keep awake], for the rest he did not use to take pains.
R. Joseph said: A man lying on his back should not recite the Shema'. [This implies] that he may not read [the Shema' lying on his back], but there is no objection to his sleeping in this posture. But did not R. Joshua b. Levi curse anyone who slept lying on his back?23 In reply it was said: To sleeping thus if he turns over a little on his side there is no objection, but to read the Shema' thus is forbidden even if he turns over somewhat. But R. Johanan turned over a little and read the Scripture? — R. Johanan was an exception, because he was very corpulent.
IN THE BREAKS HE MAY GIVE GREETING etc. For what may he RETURN GREETING? Shall I say, out of respect? But seeing that he may give greeting, is there any question that he may return it? Rather [what I must say is]: He gives greeting out of respect and returns greeting to anyone. [But then] read the next clause: IN THE MIDDLE HE GIVES GREETING OUT OF FEAR AND RETURNS IT. Returns it for what reason? Shall I say, out of fear? But seeing that he may give greeting, is there any question that he may return it? Rather [what we must say is], out of respect. But then this is the view of R. Judah,24 as we learn, R. JUDAH SAYS: IN THE MIDDLE HE GIVES GREETING OUT OF FEAR AND RETURNS IT OUT OF RESPECT, AND IN THE BREAKS HE GIVES GREETING OUT OF RESPECT AND RETURNS GREETING TO ANYONE? — There is a lacuna, and [our Mishnah] should read as follows: IN THE BREAKS HE GIVES GREETING OUT OF RESPECT, and needless to say he may return it, AND IN THE MIDDLE HE GIVES GREETING OUT OF FEAR and needless to say he may return it. So R. Meir. R. Judah says: IN THE MIDDLE HE GIVES GREETING OUT OF FEAR AND RETURNS IT OUT OF RESPECT,
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