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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Nedarim
MISHNAH. HE WHO VOWS [ABSTINENCE] FROM DATES IS PERMITTED DATE HONEY; FROM WINTER GRAPES,'1 HE IS PERMITTED VINEGAR MADE FROM WINTER GRAPES — R. JUDAH B. BATHYRA SAID: IF IT BEARS THE NAME OF ITS ORIGIN,2 AND HE VOWS [TO ABSTAIN] FROM IT,3 HE IS FORBIDDEN [TO BENEFIT] FROM WHAT COMES FROM IT. BUT THE SAGES PERMIT IT.
GEMARA. But the Sages are identical with the first Tanna? — They differ in respect of the following which was taught: R. Simeon b. Eleazar laid down this general rule: Whatever is eaten itself, and what comes from it too is eaten, e.g., dates and the honey of dates, and he vowed [abstinence] from the substance itself, he is forbidden that which comes from it;4 but if he vows [abstinence] from what comes from it, he is also forbidden the substance itself.5 But if the substance is not eaten itself, whilst what comes from it is,6 and he vowed [abstinence] from the substance itself, he is forbidden only what comes from it,7 because he meant nought else but what comes from it.8
MISHNAH. HE WHO VOWS [ABSTINENCE] FROM WINE MAY PARTAKE OF APPLE-WINE [CIDER]; FROM OIL HE IS PERMITTED SESAME OIL;9 FROM HONEY, HE IS PERMITTED DATE HONEY; FROM VINEGAR, HE IS PERMITTED THE VINEGAR OF WINTER GRAPES; FROM LEEKS, HE IS PERMITTED PORRET;10 FROM VEGETABLES, HE IS PERMITTED FIELD HERBS,11 BECAUSE IT IS A QUALIFYING EPITHET.12
GEMARA. It was taught: He who vows [to abstain] from oil: to Palestine sesame oil is permitted him, but he is forbidden olive oil; in Babylon, he is forbidden sesame oil but permitted olive oil. In the place where they are both commonly used, both are forbidden. But that is obvious? — It is necessary to teach it only when most people use one: I might think that the majority must be followed. We are therefore taught that a doubtful prohibition is [resolved] stringently.13
He who vows [abstinence] from vegetables, in normal years is forbidden garden vegetables but permitted wild vegetables; in the seventh year. He is forbidden wild vegetables but permitted garden vegetables.14 R. Abbahu said on the authority of R. Hanina b. Gamaliel:
Nedarim 53bThis was taught only where vegetables are not imported into Palestine from abroad;1 but where they are imported into Palestine from abroad, [garden vegetables] are forbidden. This is dependent on Tannaim: Vegetables may not be imported from abroad into Palestine; R. Hanina b. Gamaliel said: We may import them. What is the reason of him who prohibits it? — R. Jeremiah said: On account of the clods of earth.2
MISHNAH. [HE WHO VOWS TO ABSTAIN] FROM CABBAGE IS FORBIDDEN ASPARAGUS;3 FROM ASPARAGUS, HE IS PERMITTED CABBAGE;4 FROM POUNDED BEANS, HE IS FORBIDDEN MIKPEH:5 R. JOSE PERMITS IT. [IF ONE VOWS TO ABSTAIN] FROM MIKPEH, HE IS FORBIDDEN GARLIC. R. JOSE PERMITS IT; FROM GARLIC, HE IS PERMITTED MIKPEH. FROM LENTILS, LENTIL CAKES ARE FORBIDDEN HIM. R. JOSE PERMITS THEM. FROM LENTIL CAKES, LENTILS ARE PERMITTED HIM. [IF ONE SAYS] 'KONAM, IF I TASTE HITTAH, HITTIN',6 BOTH THE FLOUR THEREOF AND THE [BAKED] BREAD ARE FORBIDDEN TO HIM: IF I TASTE GERIS, GERISSIN',7 HE IS FORBIDDEN [TO PARTAKE] OF THEM WHETHER RAW OR COOKED. R. JUDAH SAID: [IF ONE DECLARES], 'KONAM, IF I TASTE HITTAH OR GERIS,' HE MAY CHEW THEM RAW.
GEMARA. It was taught: R. Simeon b. Gamaliel said: [If one vows 'Konam,] if I taste hittah [wheat]', baked wheat [i.e., flour] is forbidden him, but he may chew it raw; '[Konam,] if I taste hittin,'8 he may not chew them raw, but if baked, they are permitted;9 'If I taste hittah, hittin', he may neither eat them baked nor chew them raw. [If he says. 'Konam,] if I taste geris', it is forbidden cooked, but may be chewed [raw]; '[Konam], if I taste gerrissin', he is forbidden either to cook them or chew them raw.
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