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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Nedarim
MISHNAH. HE WHO VOWS [TO ABSTAIN] FROM DAGAN [GRAIN] IS FORBIDDEN DRY EGYPTIAN BEANS: THIS IS R. MEIR'S VIEW, BUT THE SAGES SAY: ONLY THE FIVE PIECES ARE FORBIDDEN HIM.1 R. MEIR SAID: IF HE VOWS [TO ABSTAIN] FROM TEBU'AH,2 HE IS FORBIDDEN ONLY THE FIVE SPECIES; BUT ONE WHO VOWS [ABSTINENCE] FROM DAGAN, IS FORBIDDEN ALL; YET HE IS PERMITTED THE FRUITS OF THE TREE AND VEGETABLES.
GEMARA. Shall we say that DAGAN implies anything that can he heaped up?3 To this R. Joseph objected: And as soon as the commandment came abroad, the children of Israel brought in abundance the first-fruits of corn [dagan] wine and oil, and honey, and of all the increase of the field; and the tithe of all things brought they in abundantly.4 But should you say that DAGAN implies everything that can be heaped up, what is meant by, And as soon as the commandment came abroad they brought in abundance?5 — Abaye answered: It is to include the fruits of the tree and vegetables.
R. MEIR SAID: IF ONE VOWS [TO ABSTAIN] FROM TEBU'AH, etc. R. Johanan said: All agree that if one vows [to abstain] from tebu'ah, the five species only are forbidden to him. It was taught likewise: And both6 agree that if one vows [abstinence] from tebu'ah, only the five species are forbidden. But that is obvious? — Tonight argue, tebu'ah implies everything: therefore he teaches that it does not imply everything. R. Joseph objected: And as soon as the commandment came abroad, they brought in abundance etc.?7 — Raba answered: Tebu'ah is one thing: tebu'ath sadeh is another.8
The Son of Mar Samuel ordered that thirteen thousand zuz worth of 'allalta9 from Nehar Pania10 should be given to Raba. So Raba sent [an enquiry] to R. Joseph: what is meant by 'allalta? — R. Joseph replied, It is [taught in] a Baraitha: And all agree that if he vows [abstinence] from tebu'ah, the five species only are forbidden him. Said Abaye to him. How compare? Tebu'ah implies only the five species, [whereas] 'allalta implies everything. When this was repeated before Raba, he observed, I am in no doubt that 'allalta means everything. My problem is this: What of the rent of houses and the hire of ships? Shall We say, Since they depreciate, they are not included in 'allalta,' or perhaps since the depreciation is imperceptible they [too] are termed 'allalta?11 The scholars narrated this to R. Joseph, 'Since he does not need us!' he exclaimed, 'why did he send to us?' And so R. Joseph was annoyed. When Raba learnt this, he went before him on the eve of the Day of Atonement, and found his attendant mixing him a cup of wine.12 'Let me prepare it for him,' said he. So he gave it to him, and he mixed the cup of wine. On drinking it he observed, 'This mixture is like that of Raba the son of R. Joseph b. Hama. 'It is indeed he,' was his reply. He then said to him, 'Do not take your seat13 until you have explained this verse to me. [Viz.,] What is meant by, 'And from the wilderness, Mattanah; and from Mattanah, Nahaliel; and from Nahaliel, Bamoth'?14 — He replied, When one makes himself as the wilderness, which is free to all,15 the Torah is presented to
in from the field', is wider in scope, and applies to everything brought in from the field, even fruit and vegetables. him as a gift [mattanah] as it is written, 'And from the wilderness, Mattanah'. And once he has it as a gift, God gives it to him as an inheritance [nahaliel],16 as it is written, 'And from Mattanah, Nahaliel;' And when God gives it him as an inheritance, he ascends to greatness' as it is written, 'And from Nahaliel, Bamoth [heights']. But if he exalts himself, the Holy One, blessed be He, casts him down, as it is written, 'And from Bamoth, the valley'.17 Moreover, he is made to sink18 into the earth, as it is written, Which is pressed down19 into the desolate soil. But should he repent, the Holy One, blessed be He, will raise him again,
Nedarim 55bas it is written, Every valley shall be exalted.1
It was taught: He who vows [to abstain] from dagan is also forbidden dry Egyptian beans; yet moist ones are permitted. He is also permitted rice, grist, groats and pearl-barley. He who vows [to abstain] from the fruits of that year, is forbidden all the fruit of that year, but is permitted goats, lambs, milk, eggs, and fledglings [of that year].2 But if he vows, 'The growths of this year [be forbidden] to me,' all these are forbidden. He who vows [abstinence] from the fruits of the earth is forbidden all the fruits of the earth, yet is permitted mushrooms and truffles; but if he vows, 'that which grows from the earth [be forbidden] to me,' all these are forbidden him. But this contradicts the following: For that which does not grow from the earth, one must recite the benediction, 'by whose word all things exist.'3 And it was taught: For salt, brine mushrooms, and truffles, 'by whose word all things exist' is said!4 — Abaye answered, They do indeed grow out of the earth, but draw their sustenance from the air,5 and not from the earth. But he [the Tanna] states: For that which does not grow out of the earth?6 — Read: For that which does not draw its sustenance from the earth.7
MISHNAH. HE WHO VOWS [NOT TO BENEFIT] FROM GARMENTS IS PERMITTED SACK-CLOTH,8 CURTAIN,9 AND BLANKET WRAPPING. IF HE SAYS, 'KONAM, IF WOOL COMES UPON ME,' HE MAY COVER HIMSELF WITH WOOL FLEECES;10 [KONAM] IF FLAX COMES UPON ME', HE MAY COVER HIMSELF WITH FLAX BUNDLES.11 R. JUDAH SAID: IT ALL DEPENDS UPON THE PERSON WHO VOWS, [THUS:] IF HE IS LADEN [WITH WOOL OR FLAX] AND PERSPIRES AND HIS ODOUR IS OPPRESSIVE, AND HE VOWS 'KONAM' IF WOOL OR FLAX COME UPON ME,' HE MAY WEAR THEM, BUT NOT THROW THEM [AS A BUNDLE] OVER HIS BACK.12
GEMARA. It was taught: He who vows [not to benefit] from garments is permitted sack-cloth, curtain, and blanket wrapping. But he is forbidden a belt,13 fascia,14 scortea, a leather spread, shoes,15 knee breeches breeches and a hat. What is a scortea? — Rabbah b. But Huna said: a leather coat.
It was taught: One may go out [on the Sabbath] wearing a thick sack-cloth, a coarse blanket, a curtain, and a blanket wrap, to keep off the rain;16 but not with a box, basket17 or matting for the sane purpose. Shepherds may go out with sacks;18 not only shepherds, but all men, but that the Sages spoke of what is usual.
R. JUDAH SAID, IT ALL DEPENDS UPON THE PERSON WHO VOWED, etc. It was taught: How did R. Judah say, it all depends upon the person who vows? If he is wearing wool, and he is irritated and he vows 'Konam, if wool comes upon me,' he is forbidden to wear, but permitted to carry it; if he is laden with flax and perspires and vows, 'Konam, if flax comes upon me, he may wear but must not carry it.
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