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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Shabbath
Whence do we learn change of garments1 in the Torah? Because it is said, And he shall put off his garments, and put on other garments,2 and the School of R. Ishmael taught: The Torah teaches you manners: In the garments in which one cooked a dish for his master, one should not mix a cup [of wine] for his master.3
R. Hiyya b. Abba said in R. Johanan's name: It is a disgrace for a scholar to go out with patched shoes into the market place. But R. Aha b. Hanina did go out [thus]? — Said R. Aha son of R. Nahman: The reference is to patches upon patches. R. Hiyya b. Abba also said in R. Johanan's name: Any scholar upon whose garment a [grease] stain is found is worthy of death,4 for it is said, All they that hate me [mesanne'ai] love [merit] death:5 read not mesanne'ai but masni'ai [that make me hated, i.e., despised].6 Rabina said: This was stated about a thick patch.7 Yet they do not differ: one refers to the upper garment [coat], the other to a shirt.
R. Hiyya b. Abba also said in R. Johanan's name: What is meant by the verse, Like as my servant Isaiah hath walked naked and barefoot?8 'Naked' means in worn-out garments; 'barefoot' in patched shoes.
We learnt elsewhere: A grease stain upon a saddle constitutes an interposition.9 R. Simeon b. Gamaliel said: [The inferior limit is] as much as an Italian issar.10 On garments: [if the stain is] on one side, it does not interpose; [if] on both sides,11 it interposes. R. Judah said in R. Ishmael's name: Even on one side it interposes.12
R. Simeon b. Lakish asked R. Hanina: In the case of a saddle, [can the stain be] on one side, or [must it be] on both sides?13 I have not heard this, he replied, but have heard something similar. For we learnt, R. Jose said: [The garments] of banna'im: [a stain even] on one side [interposes]; of uncultured persons, [only a stain] on both sides [interposes].14 And surely a saddle does not stand higher than the garment of an ignoramus!15 What are banna'im — Said R. Johanan: These are scholars, who are engaged all their days in the upbuilding of the world.16
R. Johanan also said: Who is the scholar to whom a lost article is returned on his recognition thereof?17 That [scholar] who is particular to turn his shirt.18 R. Johanan also said: Who is the scholar that is appointed a leader of the community? He who when asked a matter of halachah in any place can answer it, even in the Tractate Kallah.19 R. Johanan also said: Who is the scholar whose work it is the duty of his townspeople to perform?20 He who abandons his own interest and engages in religious affairs; yet that is only to provide21 his bread.22
R. Johanan also said: Who is a scholar? He who is asked a halachah in any place and can state it, In respect of what practical matter? — To appoint him a Ieader of the community: if [he is well versed only] in one Tractate, [he can be appointed] in his own town; if in the whole [field of] learning,23 [he can be appointed] as the head of an academy.24
R. Simeon b Lakish said: This means25 the court robes [olaryin]26 that come from overseas, Shall we say that they are white? But R. Jannai said to his sons, 'My sons, bury me neither in white shrouds nor in black shrouds, White, lest I do not merit,27 and am like a bridegroom among mourners: black, in case I have merit, and am like a mourner among bridegrooms. But [bury me] in court garments [olaryin] that come from overseas. This proves that they are coloured. — There is no difficulty: one refers to robes,28 the other to shirts.29
R. ISHMAEL SAID: ONE MAY FOLD UP, etc. Our Rabbis taught: The burnt-offering of the Sabbath, on the Sabbath thereof:30 this teaches concerning the fats of the Sabbath, that they may be offered [burnt] on the Day of Atonement. One might think. Those of the Day of Atonement [can] also [be burnt] on the Sabbath, therefore it s stated, 'on the Sabbath thereof': this is R. Ishmael's opinion. R. Akiba said: 'The burnt-offering of the Sabbath on the Sabbath thereof': this teaches concerning the fats of the sabbath, that they can be offered on a Festival.31 One might think, On the Day of Atonement too, therefore it is stated, 'on the Sabbath thereof.' When you examine the matter,32 according to R. Ishmael's opinion, vows33 and freewill-offerinqs34 may be sacrificed on a Festival, hence the verse is required in respect of the Day of Atonement.35 [But] on the view of R. Akiba, vows and freewill-offerings cannot be sacrificed on a Festival; hence the verse is required to permit [the burning of the fats on] Festivals.
R. Zera said:
When I was in Babylon1 I thought,2 That which was taught, If the Day of Atonement fell on the eve of the sabbath [Friday], it [the Shofar] was not sounded,3 while [if it fell] at the termination of the Sabbath, habdalah was not recited,4 is a unanimous opinion. But when I emigrated thither [to Palestine]. I found Judah the son of R. Simeon b. Pazzi sitting and saying, This is according to Akiba [only];5 for if [it agrees with] R. Ishmael, — since he maintains, The fats of the Sabbath may be offered on the Day of Atonement, let it [the Shofar] be sounded, so that it may be known that the fats of the Sabbath can be offered on the Day of Atonement,6 Whereupon I said to him, The priests7 are zealous.8
Mar Kashisha son of R. Hisda said to R. Ashi: Do we then say, Priests are zealous? Surely we learnt: Three [blasts were blown] to cause the people to cease work; three, to distinguish between the holy [day] and weekdays?9 — As Abaye answered,10 it was for the rest of the people in Jerusalem; so here too it was for the rest of the people in Jerusalem.
Yet let it [the Shofar] be blown, so that they might know that the trimming of vegetables is permitted [on the Day of Atonement] from the [time of] minhah11 and onwards?12 Said R. Joseph: Because a shebuth13 is not superseded in order to give permission.14 While R. Shisha son of R. Idi answered: A shehuth [of] immediate15 [importance] was permitted; a shebuth [of] distant [importance] was not permitted16 But did they permit a shebuth [of] immediate [importance]? Surely we learnt: If a Festival falls on Friday, we sound [the shofar] but do not recite habdalah;17 [if it falls] at the termination of the Sabbath, we recite habdalah18 but do not sound [the shofar].19 But why so: let it be sounded so that it may be known that killing [animals for food] is permitted immediately [the Sabbath ends]?20 Rather it is clear that it is as R. Joseph [answered].
R. Zera said in R. Huna's name — others state, R. Abba said in R. Huna's name: If the Day of Atonement falls on the Sabbath, the trimming of vegetables is forbidden. R. Mana said, It was taught likewise: How do we know that if the Day of Atonement falls on the Sabbath, the trimming of vegetables21 is forbidden? Because it is said, Sabbathon; it is a shebuth.22 Now, in respect of what [is it stated]: shall we say. In respect of labour23 — surely it is written, thou shalt not do any work?24 Hence it must surely refer to the trimming of vegetables;25 this proves it.
A. Hiyya b. Abba said in R. Johanan's name: If the Day of Atonement falls on the Sabbath, the trimming of vegetables is permitted. An objection is raised: How do we know that if the Day of Atonement falls on the Sabbath, the trimming of vegetables is forbidden? Because sabbathon is stated: it is a shebuth. In respect of what: shall we say in respect of labour, — surely it is written, 'thou shalt not do any work'? Hence it must surely refer to the trimming of vegetables! — No: in truth it refers to actual work, but [it is stated] to [show that] one violates an affirmative and a negative injunction on account thereof.26 It was taught in accordance with R. Johanan: If the Day of Atonement falls on the Sabbath,
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